Main parameters of the fabrics.
In this article we look, in summary, some of the main parameters of tissues when assessing their quality. Also we explain what the tests that determine each of the parameters and the interpretation of the results are.
In DABEDAN S.I we take very seriously the quality of our tissues and submit to all trials and testing to ensure our customers a superior quality.
1-WEIGHT PER SQUARE METER
The grammage or weight of the fabric is one of the most important parameters of the tissue. The weight is used to check the correct performance of the tissues, because it determines the amount of material used in their manufacture. It is expressed in grams per square meter. It can also be converted into weight per linear meter.
The test determines the weight is very simple to perform with a scale and a short specimens. The specimen is cut into circular shape corresponds to a square of dimensions 10 x10 cm. Once you cut the specimen is weighed directly on the scale. The data obtained should be multiplied by one hundred to obtain the weight per square meter.According to UNE 12127.
2-DENSITY BY WARP AND WOOF
The measurement of tissue density refers to the threads and having the fabric passes per centimeter. The measurement is done by direct observation and count the threads and past content per centimeter. The apparatus used is the wireless account, which has two missions. The vision increase its magnifying effect and delimit a certain length.
The ligament is defined as the order of crosslinked warp yarns with the weft in woven fabrics.
Checking ligament tissue is important to control the proper execution of the weaving process, Your check is done by direct observation of the samples. The apparatus used is the thread counter.
The test standard is UNE 40017 and 40161. It is described as sample preparation and method consisting of the unraveled yarn woven yarn, observing the placement of the frame with respect to the warp and go anotanto on graph paper these developments.
4- PILLING RESISTANCE
The effect called "Pilling" is a phenomenon known for some time in the textile field. It comes in textiles composed of fibers, especially if those items contain synthetic fibers.
Pilling appears on the surface of the tissue in the form of small balls of various sizes produced as a result of physical-mechanical to garments made during use undergo process, especially as a result of friction in certain areas of tissue with himself and / or other external stimuli. It gives the fabric pilling unsightly which is the first symptom of aging and wear of the fabric.
The measurement is performed with "abrasímetros".
There are finishing operations and dressings which reduce the tendency to pilling:
-Heat setting: This process fixes the position and twisting of the fibers, preventing protruding set.
-Singeing: This operation is achieved suppress fiber ends tissue surface.
-Hot calendering: Produces a crushing and a smoothing of the tissue surface and a fixing effect of the fibers, reducing its migration to the tissue surface.
-Resins: Imprison fibers, preventing their migration to the tissue surface.
-Silicones: Decrease abrasion of the tissue surface, delaying pilling.
The equipment used is the "Abraser". Composed of a static plate bearing the abrasive material and a piece that holds the tissue specimen to be measured. This mobile piece describes cycles on the abrasive material. The apparatus is completed by a recorder of cycles performed.
The equipment most commonly used is known as Martindale.
5-No visual change
4-villus surface and an occasional pil.
3-Training Pilling moderate.
2-Pilling visible and abundant
1-Pilling very intense across the surface.
As with the pilling, the apparatus used is the Abraser and the most used is the Martindale.
To determine the abrasion resistance of fabrics UNE-EN-ISO-12947-2 standard on which all necearios parameters for test purposes, as well as materials and equipment needed are specified is used.
The methodology is based primarily on the determination of the number of cycles needed to break a certain number of hilosque up the tissue.
The test result is expressed in cycles.
The abrasive element is a standard wool fabric.
Interpretation of results:
The result is expressed by the number of cycles that has withstood the tissue to break the number of corresponding threads. There are a number of limitations, generally 100,000 cycles, if the fabric without breaking this limit supports the test stops and the result and expressed as greater than 100,000 cycles resistance.
Dabedan Velvet HERA : Over 100,000 abrasion cycles.
The tensile strength is particularly important to determine the use to which the fabric is intended. In the case of fabrics with special applications, The knowledge of this value determines the appropriate suo tissue.
Another parameter that is analyzed in this paper is the increase in length by applying a tensile force ultimately tissue elongation.
Several concepts are linked to the elasticity:
-Elasticity or elastic elongation: Length experiencing a tissue by applying a tensile force, so that the cessation effort tissue recovered if initial length.
-Elongation at break: Maximum length experienced by the tissue when applied to a pulling force and this continues until failure occurs.
-Permanent deformation: Length acquired by the tissue to stop the traction force. It is measured by the difference between the elásico elongation and breakage.
The equipment used is the Dynamometer basically composed of a pair of tweezers. A clip is fixed and the other is in charge of making the effort required to produce the rupture of the tissue.
It is connected to a computer system responsible for recording the values obtained from both the force exerted to rupture the fabric and the alargamientosufrido by it.
There are other parameters for measuring tissue quality such as:
-Formation of wrinkles
-Permeability Air and water
-control of color.
We hope that after reading this article know better how to value the quality of tissues.