TINTURA Y ACABADOS TEXTILES
The dyeing and finishing textiles are a cornerstone in the manufacture of a textile or fabric.
It depends on us to have a quality item and able to meet the needs for whichit was designed.
In the dyeing and finishing companies have a myriad of finishes, depending on the product we want to make you have to select the colors and finishes that best suitour needs.
In this section, we try to outline the processes of dyeing and finishing, and the different types we can find. Furthermore tiptoe and describe different types ofprinting that are used in industry.
The finishes we can cover in 4 groups:
Mechanical finishing techniques provide changes in the physical characteristics of the tissues (eg, texture, density, hardness, width, etc.).
Singeing: chamuscadotas or gaseadoras the most common, are gas burners.There are also some electric resistance, where the fabric passes in contact with the flame, at speeds of 80 to 300 meters / minute, depending on tissue type. The pre-dampened tissue because usually all that is intended is to burn the little fluff or dead fibers.
Sanforizing: The sanforizing provides the tissue shrinkage controlled, once the fabric, to make it as stable as possible and has no shrinkage "high" after the wash.This process is usually done in carwash.
Calendering: involves passing the fabric between two cylinders, said cylinders pressed "tread and smooth" and high temperature, we get a better feel, smoothness and brightness on the surface.
Fulling usually performed on wool fabrics, this operation aims felting yarns of the fabric, giving it a touch more body and fluffier.
Padding: Cose between two fabrics, and back face, a web of a given thickness, resulting in a fabric with thermal insulating properties, used for coating walls, quilts or comforters.
Raising or grinding: Using the rotating machinery and hangers or by a metallic wire, weft fibers are drawn to the surface, producing a pile layer that covers the entire surface of the fabric. Used in the manufacture of blankets, flannel, coat etc ...
Shearing: A process of elimination or rough cut both weft and warp, these can be removed manually or mechanically, with blades that span the width of the fabric. It is also used to match the height of the hair raising in blankets and others.
Decatising is a type of vaporized from the inside out, to give the wire a certain springiness and therefore most body tissue, termofijándolo simultaneously.
Brushing: In clothing and drapery fabrics, this operation is responsible for removing wire fragments or other surface contamination remaining in the weaves.
Pressing: Used to iron the fabric.
Embossing: special Calendering is intended to mark a pattern of brightness contrast-mate in the tissue surface.
Chinz: Provides intense shine fabric passing between two cylinders rotating at different speeds.
2- Chemical Finishes
Chemical finishing techniques (for example, pigmentation or bleaching) change the color of fabrics and chemical properties (for example, fireproof, waterproof etc ...)
Sizing: This operation is used to give a longer contact with the body tissues and more rigidly, the sizing is performed in foulard using 2 rollers through which the tissue. They also tend to gird a thread group to facilitate the weaving process.Commonly used starches and glues.
Desizing: action is contrary to sizing, here we want to remove the sizing given the warp during weaving preparation and will do so by special washes for that purpose.
Smoothing: Substance composed of cationic surfactants are applied to textiles to impart a soft feel.
Permanent Press: This operation involves the application of thermoset resins with subsequent heat treatment, forming condensation products which communicate solids washing effects.
Unshrinkable: Decreases and cancels the swelling capacity of the fiber, thereby preventing the access of water, synthetic resin precondensates.
Wash and wear: This finish gives the textile properties so they can be washed with the appropriate domestic treatment and once dry it is ready for use without ironing.
Waterproof: Application of chemicals that prevent the passage of water but allowing the passage of air. Fluorocarbon are acting as repellents to any type of liquid ... the teflon or stain usually call ..
Fireproof: The textile fibers by their nature are organic bodies that are combustible or flammable greater or lesser degree. With the application of a sizing fireproof flammable fibers will be in a much lesser degree.
Antiseptic: Sizing whose purpose is to destroy or inhibit the action exerted harmful microorganisms or insects on textile fibers.
Slip: Application acting on the fabric increase the coefficient of friction, fiber to fiber, reducing the slip and the openings of the unwanted tissue.
3- Textile Printing
Applying to the tissue surface a pattern in one or more colors by means ofconventional dyes, pigments, transfer, airbrushing, etc ...
Today's machines are flat or stamping presses, using more frequently the presses.The process involves applying a design on the fabric via several rolls which are necessary for obtaining same. Each cylinder print a different color than the otherand the combined effect of all cylinders is achieved the entire drawing on the canvas.
These dyeing we will not consider as fabric finishes and intermediate processes that are necessary before the final finish.
Preparation: As its name suggests, is a preparation made of gray fabric and depending on the type of stain or finish that will have to be prepared in donkey or by car, where the tissue was weighed to calculate the quantities of products to be carried in the following processes.
Causticised: The treatment of cotton fibers with caustic at concentrations between 18 to 24 º BE, this process is performed by cold impregnation and thereby achieving an equalization behavior dyer fibers dead or immature and higher affinitydyes.
Mercerized: The treatment of cotton fibers with caustic at concentrations between 27 and 30 ° BE, cotton fibers lose the undulations and the fibers are longer. When this happens the roundness acquiring fiber shrinks, producing a higher refraction of light and consequent higher gloss.
Tenterin and ironing: the rame has several functions that are essential in any piece dyeing fabric, and foremost among them is the stabilized tissue or thermosetting, made by high temperature and that will give us the necessary stability to the fabric to avoid problems within dyeing machines. In turn the tentering at a lower temperature serves to dry the fabric and ironed to avoid wrinkles and fix their final width.
Scouring: degumming is a process that is performed whenever the tissue has in its composition and cotton or wool scouring the object is removed by firing natural fatty substances fibers, contaminations and accidental stains can carry some tissues may even used the car wash.
Bleaching: is to remove or discolor the natural materials of cotton and wool, thus obtaining a whiter-looking tissue. Oxidants are commonly used to react with the fibers and thereby inflict much whiter appearance.
Dyeing: report consists of an unnatural color to the fabric, by impregnation or by conventional coloring pigment. The dyeing of textiles may be performed by different machines, processes and colorants. Depending on the different fabric materials and applications. The most common dyes, especially when dealing with large productions are usually done to continuously (whenever possible). Are also common to other production machines such as shorter, autoclaves, jiggers, jets, overflows or multiflows.
The dyes used depend on the type of material with which we work, the most used for cotton and polyester: disperse, reactive, direct, indanthrenes.
After the dye is passed back by the rame tissue to dry the fabric and finish according to customer specifications.
Finishing: is to detect defects that have occurred in the dyeing and finishing, as well as defects that may have occurred in origin, both spots and defects produced in the weaving room.
Oped: is rollar parts with a certain footage and a presentation by the manufacturer, as appropriate presence to give each type of item for sale or placement in stores or warehouses.